Entangling Photons of Different Colors

By carefully engineering the geometry of a micrometer-scale, ring-shaped resonator, researchers produced pairs of entangled photons that have two very different colors or wavelengths. (Source: S. Kelley, NIST)

The optical components that store and process quantum information typically require visible-light photons to operate. However, only near-infrared photons can transport that information over kilometers of optical fibers. Now, researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST have developed a novel way to solve this problem. For the first time, the team created quantum-correlated pairs made up of one visible and one near-infrared photon using chip-based optical components that can be mass-produced. These photon pairs combine the best of both worlds: The visible-light partners can interact with trapped atoms, ions, or other systems that serve as quantum versions of computer memory while the near-infrared members of each couple are free to propagate over long distances through the optical fiber.

The achievement promises to boost the ability of light-based circuits to securely transmit infor­mation to faraway locations. NIST researchers Xiyuan Lu, Kartik Srinivasan and their colleagues at the University of Maryland NanoCenter in College Park, demonstrated the entanglement, using a specific pair of visible-light and near-infrared photons. However, the researchers’ design methods can be easily applied to create many other visible-light/near-infrared pairs tailored to match specific systems of interest. Moreover, the miniature optical components that created the entangle­ments are manu­factured in large numbers.

A measurement that determines the quantum state of one of the entangled particles auto­matically determines the state of the other, even if the two particles lie on opposite sides of the universe. Entangle­ment lies at the heart of many quantum information schemes, including quantum computing and encryption. In many situations, the two photons that are entangled have similar wavelengths, or colors. But the NIST researchers deliberately set out to create odd couples – entanglement between photons whose colors are very different.

“We wanted to link together visible-light photons, which are good for storing information in atomic systems, and tele­communication photons, which are in the near-infrared and good at traveling through optical fibers with low signal loss,” said Srinivasan. To make photons suitable for interacting with most quantum information storage systems, the team also needed the light to be sharply peaked at a particular wavelength rather than having a broader, more diffuse distri­bution.

To create the entangled pairs, the team constructed a specially tailored optical “whispering gallery” – a nano-sized silicon nitride resonator that steers light around a tiny racetrack. When a selected wavelength of laser light was directed into the resonator, entangled pairs of visible-light and near-infrared photons emerged. “We figured out how to engineer these whispering gallery resonators to produce large numbers of the pairs we wanted, with very little background noise and other extraneous light,” Lu said. The researchers confirmed that entangle­ment persisted even after the tele­communication photons traveled through several kilometers of optical fiber.

In the future, by combining two of the entangled pairs with two quantum memories, the entanglement inherent in the photon pairs can be transferred to the quantum memories.  This entanglement swapping allows the memories to be entangled with each other over a much longer distance than would normally be possible. “Our contribution was to figure out how to make a quantum light source with the right properties that could enable such long-distance entanglement,” Srinivasan said. (Source: NIST)

Reference: X. Lu et al.: Chip-integrated visible–telecom entangled photon pair source for quantum communication, Nat. Phys., online 21 January 2019; DOI: 10.1038/s41567-018-0394-3

Link: Microsystems and Nanotechnology Division, Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST, Gaithersburg, USA

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