Coin-Sized Infrared Spectrometer

Approximately 2 cm in length, this chip makes it possible to precisely analyze the infrared spectrum. (Source: P. A. Halder, ETHZ)

Nowadays, a mobile phone can do almost anything: take photos or video, send messages, determine its present location, and of course transmit telephone conver­sations. With these versatile devices, it might even be possible to ascertain a beer’s alcohol content or how ripe a piece of fruit is. At first glance, the idea of using mobile phones for chemical analyses seems a daring one. After all, the infrared spectro­meters used for such analyses today generally weigh several kilograms and are difficult to integrate into a handheld device. Now researchers at ETH Zurich have taken an important step towards turning this vision into reality.

David Pohl and Marc Reig Escalé, in the group headed by Rachel Grange, Professor of Optical Nano­materials in the Department of Physics, colla­borated with other colleagues to develop a chip about 2 square centi­meters in size. With it, they can analyze infrared light in the same way as they would with a conven­tional spectro­meter. A conventional spectro­meter splits the incident light into two paths before reflecting it off two mirrors. The reflected light beams are recombined and measured with a photo­detector. Moving one of the mirrors creates an inter­ference pattern, which can be used to determine the proportion of different wave­lengths in the incoming signal. Because chemical substances create charac­teristic gaps in the infrared spectrum, scientists can use the resulting patterns to identify what substances occur in the test sample and in what concen­tration.

This same principle is behind the mini-spectrometer. However, in their device, the incident light is no longer analyzed with the help of moveable mirrors; instead, it makes use of special waveguides with an optical refractive index that can be adjusted exter­nally via an electric field. “Varying the refractive index has an effect similar to what happens when we move the mirrors,” Pohl explains, “so this set-up lets us disperse the spectrum of the incident light in the same way.” Depending on how the waveguide is configured, researchers can examine different parts of the light spectrum. “In theory, our spectro­meter lets you measure not only infrared light, but also visible light, provided the waveguide is properly configured,” Escalé says. In contrast to other integrated spectro­meters that can cover only a narrow range of the light spectrum, the device deve­loped by Grange’s group has a major advantage in that it can easily analyse a broad section of the spectrum.

Alongside its compact size, the physicists’ inno­vation offers two other advantages: the “spectrometer on a chip” has to be calibrated only once, compared to conven­tional devices that needs recalibration over and over again; and because it contains no moving parts, it requires less main­tenance. For their spectro­meter, the researchers employed a material that is also used as a modulator in the tele­communi­cations industry. This material has many positive properties, but as a waveguide, it confines the light to the inside. This is less than ideal, as a measure­ment is possible only if some of the guided light can get out. For this reason, the scientists attached delicate metal structures to the wave­guides that scatter the light to the outside of the device. “It required a lot of work in the clean room until we could structure the material the way we wanted,” Grange explains.

Until the current mini-spectro­meter can actually be integrated into a mobile or other electronic device, however, there is still some tech­nological progress to be made. “At the moment we’re measuring the signal with an external camera,” Grange says, “so if we want to have a compact device, we have to integrate this as well.” Originally the physicists were aiming, not at chemical analyses, but at a completely different appli­cation: in astronomy, infrared spectrometers provide valuable infor­mation about distant celestial objects. Because the earth’s atmo­sphere absorbs a high amount of infrared light, it would be ideal to station these instruments on satel­lites or telescope in space. A compact, lightweight and stable measure­ment device that can be launched into space relatively inexpen­sively would naturally offer a substantial benefit. (Source: ETHZ)

Reference: D. Pohl et al.: An integrated broadband spectrometer on thin-film lithium niobate, Nat. Phot., online 7 October 2019; DOI: 10.1038/s41566-019-0529-9

Link: Optical Nanomaterial Group, Institute for Quantum Electronics, Dept. of Physics, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

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